Please Answer: The Assyrians were the inhabitants of a country that became a mighty empire dominating the biblical Middle East from the ninth to the seventh century BC. The Luwian inscription reads "Sura/i" whereas the Phoenician translation reads ’ŠR or "Ashur" which, according to Rollinger (2006), "settles the problem once and for all".[229]. 119-120), "The Later, the title of Patriarch was also used. Since the start of the Iraq war, at least 46 churches and monasteries have been bombed.[138]. A letter on behalf of the Assyrians and their settlement from the United States, Iraq and Iran. escaped have no intentions to return to Turkey. commission made up of British, French, Italian, Persian [182], By ethnic percentage, the largest Assyrian diaspora communities are located in Södertälje in Stockholm County, Sweden, and in Fairfield City in Sydney, Australia, where they are the leading ethnic group in the suburbs of Fairfield, Fairfield Heights, Prairiewood and Greenfield Park. racial or religious minorities under articles 62, 63, sent north to protect Iraq, since the Iraqi army at this [160] The Assyrians in Syria did not have Syrian citizenship and title to their established land until late the 1940s. It was used to write the Syriac language from the 1st century AD. in which Mosul (Nineveh) was decided to be zoned After a death, a gathering is held three days after burial to celebrate the ascension to heaven of the dead person, as of Jesus; after seven days another gathering commemorates their death. under the authority of the League of Nations, if not in "[274] In a 2017 study focusing on the genetics of Northern Iraqi populations, it was found that Iraqi Assyrians and Iraqi Yazidis clustered together, but away from the other Northern Iraqi populations analyzed in the study, and largely in between the West Asian and Southeastern European populations. Syrian-Iraqi borders. Took A. Ablahad, A. K. Yousuf, R. Najeeb, G. Zabouni, S. A. The modern terminological problem goes back to colonial times, but it became more acute in 1946, when with the independence of Syria, the adjective Syrian referred to an independent state. of the borders and Mosul (Nineveh) province. - Page 51 by United States Congress, The Armenian Genocide: Wartime Radicalization Or Premeditated Continuum – Page 272 edited by Richard Hovannisian, Not Even My Name: A True Story – Page 131 by Thea Halo, The Political Dictionary of Modern Middle East by Agnes G. Korbani, Wigram, W.A., "The Ashiret Highlands of Hakkari (Mesopotamia)," Royal Central Asian Society Journal, 1916, Vol. accept Islam." [255] It has 22 letters representing consonants, three of which can be also used to indicate vowels. Treaty between Britian and Turkey. earlier on June 25, 1928; "The and children alike. The 14th century massacres of Timur devastated the Assyrian people. This was by no means the first schism in the Church of the East. Another council held in 424 declared that the Catholicos of the East was independent of "western" ecclesiastical authorities (those of the Roman Empire). [158] Though recent settlement of Christian Assyrians in Nisabina, Qamishli, Al-Hasakah, Al-Qahtaniyah, Al Darbasiyah, Al-Malikiyah, Amuda, Tel Tamer and a few other small towns in Al-Hasakah Governorate in Syria, occurred in the early 1930s,[159] when they fled from northern Iraq after they were targeted and slaughtered during the Simele massacre. 16, 1925 The majority of Assyrians living in what is today modern Turkey were forced to flee to either Syria or Iraq after the Turkish victory during the Turkish War of Independence. 1933 A letter from the Mosul (Nineveh) belongs to Iraq and that the Christian [277] The haplogroup is frequent in Middle Eastern Jews, Georgians, Druze and Somalians. The Assyrians Are Beaten. were killed." were not allowed to participate as Great Britian stood Kinarah: Twentieth Anniversary of Assyrian Australian Association 1989, Assyrian Australian Association, Edensor Park. Three Treaty (1974), The Akkadian influences on Aramaic. has failed. In addition, Western media often makes no mention of any ethnic identity of the Christian people of the region and simply call them Christians,[162] Iraqi Christians, Iranian Christians, Syrian Christians, and Turkish Christians, a label rejected by Assyrians. [234] There are many Assyrian customs that are common in other Middle Eastern cultures. that this region will be saved for the future settlement Typically, rice is served with every meal, with a stew poured over it. The Assyrians today speak dialects of Eastern Aramaic, which still contain an Akkadian grammatical structure and hundreds of Akkadian loanwords. For full treatment, see Mesopotamia, history of: The Rise of Assyria. included:  S. Raji, M. Shakour, A. Barsoom, B. Bakous, aircraft for Cyprus by way of Palestine. [76][77], From 1700 BC and onward, the Sumerian language was preserved by the ancient Babylonians and Assyrians only as a liturgical and classical language for religious, artistic and scholarly purposes.[78]. Assyrians have descended from a vast and powerful empire dating back 5000 years. The Chaldean subgroup is a subgroup of the Eastern one. points of bayonets. The largest Assyrian diaspora communities are found in Sweden (100,000),[179] Germany (100,000),[180] the United States (80,000),[181] and in Australia (46,000). NOTE:  This secret agreement was made These Assyrians form the minority population of Christians in northern Syria, modern Iraq, Turkey, and western Iran. Since the Assyrian genocide, many Assyrians have left the Middle East entirely for a more safe and comfortable life in the countries of the Western world. 21, 1924 - The Constantinople Conference The Holocaust Continues The Church of the East was considered to be one of the major Christian powerhouses in the world, alongside Latin Christianity in Europe and the Byzantine Empire.[94]. Assyrian people till the present time. Six such provinces were instituted in 410. Due to their Christian faith and ethnicity, the Assyrians have been persecuted since their adoption of Christianity. Assyrian Question (Dr. Dadisho) the Assyrian delegate from the USA arrived which ISIL was driven out from the Assyrian villages in the Khabour River Valley and the areas surrounding the city of Al-Hasakah in Syria by 2015, and from the Nineveh plains in Iraq by 2017. [276], Haplogroup J2 has been measured at 13.4%, which is commonly found in the Fertile Crescent, the Caucasus, Anatolia, Italy, coastal Mediterranean, and the Iranian plateau. [276] Yet another DNA test comprising 48 Assyrian male subjects from Iran, the Y-DNA haplogroups J-M304, found in its greatest concentration in the Arabian peninsula, and the northern R-M269, were also frequent at 29.2% each. 5, 1926 reminded the Council about such plan which was The motives for these massacres were an attempt to reassert Pan-Islamism in the Ottoman Empire, resentment at the comparative wealth of the ancient indigenous Christian communities, and a fear that they would attempt to secede from the tottering Ottoman Empire. Peace Conference in Paris, France. Dioceses were organised into provinces, each of which was under the authority of a metropolitan bishop. Assyrians belong to various Christian denominations such as the Assyrian Church of the East, with an estimated 400,000 members,[259] the Chaldean Catholic Church, with about 600,000 members,[260] and the Syriac Orthodox Church (ʿIdto Suryoyto Triṣaṯ Šuḇḥo), which has between 1 million and 4 million members around the world (only some of whom are Assyrians),[261] the Ancient Church of the East with some 100,000 members. for human rights, the Allies were embarrassed to explaining that the US president F. Wilson is having Nusardyl, commemorating the baptism of the Assyrians of Urmia by St. Thomas. In addition to the jizya tax, they were also required to pay the kharaj tax on their land which was heavier than the jizya. Most Assyrians currently reside in the West due to the centuries of persecution by the neighboring Muslims. would not be permitted in any circumstances to enter also been given asylum...", The Sydney Morning Herald massacres and destruction of seventy of Urmia's villages frontier as laid down in this treaty. Therefore, these "languages" would generally be considered to be dialects of Assyrian Neo-Aramaic rather than separate languages. rights will be protected, worth mentioning that Agha Iraq before the end of the Mandate since it would be The Parachute Company was attached to the Royal Marine Commando and were involved in fighting in Albania, Italy and Greece. June Britain gained possession of Mosul (Nineveh)�s rich oil right through its way began a systematic them until not a man was left standing in in the plains. Over 31 towns and villages, 25 Assyrian monasteries and churches were razed to the ground. dropped the earlier established recommendations by the Assyrians don’t really look like Arabs, Depends what you mean by "Arab". According to the study, "contemporary Assyrians and Yazidis from northern Iraq may in fact have a stronger continuity with the original genetic stock of the Mesopotamian people, which possibly provided the basis for the ethnogenesis of various subsequent Near Eastern populations". Before being imprisoned for four months and then in January 1555 put to death by the governor of Amadiya at the instigation of the rival patriarch of Alqosh, the Aliya line,[115] he ordained two metropolitans and three other bishops,[116] thus beginning a new ecclesiastical hierarchy: the patriarchal line known as the Shimun line. Kaufman, Stephen A. On behalf of the Assyrians living in half century at the League of Nations, then the United public by the new Bolshevik Government of Russia after Turkish Amnesty Law did not cover the Assyrians, who did not. "The [65] Battle of Habbaniya is well described in the book, "The This led to a large-scale migration of Turkish-based Assyrian people into countries such as Syria, Iran, and Iraq (where they were to suffer further violent assaults at the hands of the Arabs and Kurds), as well as other neighbouring countries in and around the Middle East such as Armenia, Georgia and Russia.[126][127][128][129]. 20, 1922 - Treaty of Lausanne, May estimated that 3000 Assyrians were massacred originally suggested by Lord Curzon, the British Foreign Fairfield City Council 2003, State of the Community Report, Fairfield City Council, Wakeley. requested from the League of Nations to look into the They tell a surprising story about the suffering of the people of God. Their The modern Assyrians are descendants of a people who date back nearly 7,000 years to before the rise of the ancient Mesopotamian civilizations in the Near East. The [70] Herodotus, whose Histories are the main source of information about that battle, makes no mention of Assyrians in connection with it. [121], Another major massacre of Assyrians (and Armenians) in the Ottoman Empire occurred between 1894 and 1897 by Turkish troops and their Kurdish allies during the rule of Sultan Abdul Hamid II. Turkey then massed latest news is that four thousand Assyrians and one A wide variety of languages and dialects exist, including Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Chaldean Neo-Aramaic, and Turoyo. Non-Muslims were organised into millets. troops opened fire upon the defenseless its part, to give the necessary cooperation for giving The Mongol khans were sympathetic with Christians and did not harm them. Assyrians, although representing but one single nation as the into the Assyrian National Question. To this end, a Yousif Malik (Nathir), April welcomed to live in their previous lands in Turkey where A century and a half later, in 1830, headship of the Catholics (the Chaldean Catholic Church) was conferred on Yohannan Hormizd, a member of the family that for centuries had provided the patriarchs of the legitimist "Eliya line", who had won over most of the followers of that line. stressing the fears of the Assyrians regarding the Assyrian Christians — often simply referred to as Assyrians — are an ethnic minority group whose origins lie in the Assyrian Empire, a major power in the ancient Middle East. The modern Assyrians are a minority in the Middle East, as well as in other parts of the world where they have migrated more recently. religion, in print or at a public gathering. Assyrian festivals tend to be closely associated with their Christian faith, of which Easter is the most prominent of the celebrations. Chaldean, Maronite, Syriac Orthodox and Syriac Catholic. A small minority of Assyrians accepted the Protestant Reformation thus are Reform Orthodox in the 20th century, possibly due to British influences, and is now organized in the Assyrian Evangelical Church, the Assyrian Pentecostal Church and other Protestant/Reform Orthodox Assyrian groups. agreement was reached. Assyrians/Syriacs in Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Süryaniler) are an indigenous Semitic-speaking ethnic group and minority of Turkey who are Eastern Aramaic–speaking Christians, with most being members of the Syriac Orthodox Church, Chaldean Catholic Church, Assyrian Pentecostal Church, Assyrian Evangelical Church, or Ancient Church of the East. Children It was an awful petitions were received by the Mandate Commission League of Nations). [237] Spitting on anyone or their belongings is seen as a grave insult. guns outside the windows of the houses in filed again by Mar Eshai Shimun XXIII, Patriarch of the Material dug up by Romeo Hanna tells us it Their Ancient History, Culture, Religion, (Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta, 100), Leuven, 2000. This Along with the Arameans, Armenians, Greeks, and Nabataeans, the Assyrians were among the first people to convert to Christianity and spread Eastern Christianity to the Far East in spite of becoming, from the 8th century, a minority religion in their homeland following the Muslim conquest of Persia. August Between the Allied powers and Turkey. religious minorities in this area. Assyrians have numerous traditional dances which are performed mostly for special occasions such as weddings. submit any petitions to the League of Nations, directly, The Assyrians are far from the only religious or ethnic minority group who face such threats from Daesh. They are proud of their Assyrian identity. Assyrian activist organizations such as the Assyrian Policy Institute are critical of the fact that the movement is funded and controlled entirely by the PKK and the PYD, and claim that the movement exists to serve the interests of those groups. The Ottomans secured their control over Mesopotamia and Syria in the first half of the 17th century following the Ottoman–Safavid War (1623–39) and the resulting Treaty of Zuhab. [58] Those who survived fled to unaffected areas of Assyrian settlement in northern Iraq, with others settling in Iraqi cities to the south. Most recently, the post-2003 Iraq War and the Syrian Civil War, which began in 2011, have displaced much of the remaining Assyrian community from their homeland as a result of ethnic and religious persecution at the hands of Islamic extremists. bodies thrown on a pile of dead. 13, 1947 - Petition to the UN General The Assyrians were prized by the British rulers for their fighting qualities, loyalty, bravery and discipline,[130] and were used to help the British put down insurrections among the Arabs and Kurds. Jun 3, 2018 - The Assyrians are a people who have lived in the Middle East since ancient times and today can be found all over the world. Bolton slams Trump's 'incoherent' rant on military. Minister, on Dec. 17, 1919. Syrian, Syriani, Suryoye, Suryoyo and Telkeffee. unsolved problem. After, there were no records of Assyrians remaining in Ashur according to the archaeological and numismatic record. 5, 1932 several days later. Iraqi army returned to Mosul (Nineveh) and Today, the Assyrians are the descendants of the ancient Assyrian Empire and one of the earliest civilizations emerging in Mesopotamia. Things The Assyrians of today number more than five million and are the direct descendants of the ancient Assyrian and Babylonian empires. finally recommended that the issue should be referred to of the invading hostile forces. British Air Force Base in Habbaniya against the Rebels oppression against the Assyrians in Iraq and details on Assyrians were told that Britain is fighting their case Assyrians were increasingly marginalized, persecuted, and gradually became a minority in their own homeland. "[151] Associated with the SUP is the Syriac Military Council, an Assyrian militia operating in Syria, established in January 2013 to protect and stand up for the national rights of Assyrians in Syria as well as working together with the other communities in Syria to change the current government of Bashar al-Assad. From this point, the Assyrian population was dramatically reduced in their homeland. they will find freedom. did not accept the reports of Britain and Iraq and Persecutions and attempts to impose Zoroastrianism continued during the reign of Yazdegerd II. [197] Today, Assyrians and other minority ethnic groups in the Middle East, feel pressure to identify as "Arabs",[198][199] "Turks" and "Kurds".[200]. partitioned after World War I by the victorious Allies, and is thoughts and condolences to the families of the victims and to games. [189][190] The Assyrians in Detroit are primarily Chaldean speakers, who also originate from Iraq. Britain�s preparations to clear the way for Iraq to The majority of the population were Eastern Aramaic speakers. The tension reached its peak shortly after the formal declaration of independence when hundreds of Assyrian civilians were slaughtered during the Simele Massacre by the Iraqi Army in August 1933. Human Rights of Assyrians. were delayed, the Assyrians decided to take action and concourse of 25,000 men, women, and children, Assyrians In [176][177], During the eras of Mongol rule under Genghis Khan and Timur, there was indiscriminate slaughter of tens of thousands of Assyrians and destruction of the Assyrian population of northwestern Iran and central and northern Iran.[178]. "[272] A 2008 study on the genetics of "old ethnic groups in Mesopotamia", including 340 subjects from seven ethnic communities ("Assyrian, Jewish, Zoroastrian, Armenian, Turkmen, the Arab peoples in Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait") found that Assyrians were homogeneous with respect to all other ethnic groups sampled in the study, regardless of religious affiliation. to the new world body of peace and was accompanied by Rashid Ali Al-Gailani who sided himself with Germany and They form the last ethnic world community to preserve Aramaic as a native language – the language spoken by Jesus – that was the lingua franca of the region before Arabic displaced it when Islam emerged. Zakho, ahmed al-Dibuni tortured 46 Assyrians In Russia, small groups of Assyrians mostly reside in Krasnodar Kray and Moscow. Hence control, not having much authority in Iran, the British [183][184][185] There is also a sizable Assyrian community in Melbourne, Australia (Broadmeadows, Meadow Heights and Craigieburn)[186] In the United States, Assyrians are mostly found in Chicago (Niles and Skokie), Detroit (Sterling Heights, and West Bloomfield Township), Phoenix, Modesto (Stanislaus County) and Turlock. Aboona, H (2008). appropriate facilities will be provided for any obligations towards the Assyrians. There, Surma Khanim, the head of the delegate was kept The vowel sounds are supplied either by the reader's memory or by optional diacritic marks. they should occupy whatever land the Iraqi government Historically many Assyrians also spoke Turkish, Armenian, Azeri, Kurdish, and Persian and a smaller number of Assyrians that remain in Iran, Turkey (Istanbul and Tur Abdin) and Armenia still do today. Assyrians are not Arabian, we are not Kurdish, our religion is not Islam. the order of the government today (August Iran. 140, 141, 142, 147, 148, 149, and 150 and as a result of Therefore, mixed marriage between Assyrians and Armenians is quite common, most notably in Iraq, Iran, and as well as in the diaspora with adjacent Armenian and Assyrian communities. inter sese, into five principle ecclesiastically designated They are predominantly Christian and claim heritage from Assyria, originating from 2500 BC in ancient Mesopotamia. [150] With that academic year, states the Rojava Education Committee, "three curriculums have replaced the old one, to include teaching in three languages: Kurdish, Arabic and Assyrian. fight with the Iraqi army on the petitions from the Patriarch in 1945 and 1946 were sent November wanted to force the British out of Iraq completely. intelligence officer served in Iraq during W.W.II. This sharp decline is due to an intense conflict between Turkey and the PKK in the 1980s. Mosul (Nineveh) back based on Great Britian's claims Assyrian People in Iraq", in that regard. non-Turkish-speaking citizen of Turkey to use his own There are three main Assyrian subgroups: Eastern, Western, Chaldean. In 410, the Council of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, the capital of the Sasanian Empire,[83] organized the Christians within that empire into what became known as the Church of the East. Cyprus in another British RAF machine During the "Seyfo" genocide, there were a number of Assyrians who converted to Islam. law and education have all been influenced by these ancient cultures. Soon afterwards, Christians in the Roman Empire were divided by their attitude regarding the Council of Ephesus (431), which condemned Nestorianism, and the Council of Chalcedon (451), which condemned Monophysitism. The Assyrians and the Assyrian Question (Matfiev) any expenses of such settlement. 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