The catalyst for the revolution was the First World War. However, following the Tsarist government's collapse, many local committees are known as Soviets and took power all over Russia. Short-Term Causes of the end of Tsarism (March 1917) Petrograd workers protest food shortages and criticize the Tsarist regime, March 8-10 Petrograd was on of the main cities of the empire The Russian government was very tenuous- whether it would survive at all was point of debate in the years preceding World War One The… Although there were a large number of events that culminated in the October 1917 Revolution, I have chosen to focus solely on those within the 20th century. [8] The authority of the Tsar ebbed away, and he was forced to abdicate. The subsequent governments were coalitions. Their sacrifices and protests eventually made the revolution come true. When Cossacks violently broke up a demonstration in St Petersburg, with many deaths, the country saw widespread revolts. They often refused to recognize the authority of the Provisional Government. Many of the Soviets were dominated by the Bolsheviks or Communists loyal to their exiled leader Lenin. The majority of the population were still peasants that often worked the land for wealthy landlords and endured lives of great hardship. However, by 1917, the citizens did not see significant change/improvement in their lives, and once again grew dissatisfied. Nicholas, his family, and their loyal retainers were detained by the provisional government and were eventually moved to Yekaterinburg. The dates used are those of the Julian Calendar, which was in use in Russia at the time of the Russian Revolution. The industrial revolution reached Russia significantly later than the rest of Europe. It was rapidly industrializing, and the country’s economy was growing fast.[2]. It saw the world’s first Communist government, and it led to a wave of communist-inspired revolutions around the world and, ultimately, the Cold War. Autocratic Rule of the Czars: Czar Alexander II brought some reforms in Russia and became famous among all. On March 13, 1881, one of the most reformist Russian tsars since the time of Peter the Great (1672-1725) fell victim to assassination by revolutionaries from the Narodnaya Volya. In countries like Russia, where Eastern Orthodoxy was the dominant religion, dates were reckoned according to the Julian calendar. There had already been too many nights of madness in 1917 as the Russian Revolution rocked Petrograd (renamed from St. Petersburg at the onset of World War I … Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The industrial revolution reached Russia significantly later than the rest of Europe. 1917 saw two distinct revolutions in Russia: the overthrow of the Tsarist regime and formation of the Provisional Government ( February Revolution), and the October Revolution in which the Bolsheviks overthrew the Provisional Government. By autumn the Bolshevik program of “peace, land, and bread” had won the party considerable support among the hungry urban workers and the soldiers, who were already deserting from the ranks in large numbers. The tsar’s reactionary policies, including the occasional dissolution of the Duma, or Russian parliament, the chief fruit of the 1905 revolution, had spread dissatisfaction even to moderate elements. The Russian Revolution was, while a huge economic, social, and political change, the result of a number of different factors that built up over time, including economic, military, and political circumstances. After two years of fighting, the Bolsheviks emerged victorious. However, only after a brutal civil war resulted in millions of deaths that the Communist were able to take full control of Russia. The October Revolution, also known as the Great October Socialist Revolution, as the official term in the Soviet Union, the Bolshevik Coup, the Bolshevik Revolution, the October Uprising, the October Coup or Red October, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolshevik Party of Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917–1923. Many factors caused the Russian Revolution. What happened in Red … What caused the October 1917 Russian Revolution? On July 17, 1918, when White army forces approached the area, the tsar and his entire family were slaughtered to prevent their rescue. On the night of October, they seized the Winter Palace and ousted the Provisional Government. But while the Provisional Government’s power waned, that of the soviets was increasing, as was the Bolsheviks’ influence within them. On October 24–25 (November 6–7) the Bolsheviks and Left Socialist Revolutionaries staged a nearly bloodless coup, occupying government buildings, telegraph stations, and other strategic points. Workers’ Rights Issues The emancipation of the serfs led to a dramatic increase in population in Russian cities, as people moved away from the countryside to urban areas. The Policy of Russification: Czar Alexander III was not only a despotic ruler but he also followed the … Bloody Sunday in 1905 and the Russian defeat in the Russo-Japanese War both helped lead to the 1917 revolution. The first factor that led to the 1917 Russian Revolution and the communist government that followed was Russia’s participation in World War I. For the sake of…, While Britain, France, Italy, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey all survived their crises of 1917 and found the will and stamina for one last year of war, Russia succumbed. The Tsar promised reforms, including land reform, and vowed to respect the constitution. Russia’s economic growth did create a new middle class. By September the Bolsheviks and their allies, the Left Socialist Revolutionaries, had overtaken the Socialist Revolutionaries and Mensheviks and held majorities in both the Petrograd and Moscow soviets. The Russian Romanov dynasty collapsed in the chaos of the Russian Revolution of 1917. The Russian Revolution of 1917 was one of the most significant events in the 20th century. In December 1916, a group of aristocrats attempted to ‘save’ the monarchy from Rasputin by murdering him. In the years following, Nicholas II failed to implement meaningful reforms, although some ‘real and positive changes. None of them, however, was able to cope adequately with the major problems afflicting the country: peasant land seizures, nationalist independence movements in non-Russian areas, and the collapse of army morale at the front. … Czar Nicholas is overthrown March 15, 1917. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. But place matters here as much as time – “place” meaning not just Russia, but Petrograd, as the imperial capital became known after “St Petersburg” was de-Germanised on the outbreak of war in 1914. NB. Russia invaded Prussia in 1914, but after some initial success, was defeated. Russia endured hefty casualties, and it placed a great strain on its resources. The revolution was the culmination of a long period of repression and unrest. Updates? By the 18th century, most countries in Europe had adopted the Gregorian calendar. At the First All-Russian Congress of Soviets, convened on June 3 (June 16), the Socialist Revolutionaries were the largest single bloc, followed by the Mensheviks and Bolsheviks. However, this did not make the Russian Revolution inevitable. The next day the world was amazed to hear of the first Communist government in history. By 1917 the bond between the tsar and most of the Russian people had been broken. Governmental corruption and inefficiency were rampant. The tsar’s reactionary policies, including the occasional dissolution of the Duma, or Russian parliament, the chief fruit of the 1905 revolution, had spread dissatisfaction even to moderate elements. Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, leader of the Bolsheviks, was living in exile when the … Politically, the people of Russia resented the autocracy of Tsar Nicholas II and the corrupt and anachronistic elements in his government. [5] The economy improved after 1905, and the Tsar began to win back some support. 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